Post by Scoutpilot on Dec 27, 2018 19:08:48 GMT -5
The Willys MC or formally the 1⁄4-Ton, 4 x 4, Utility Truck M38 was a quarter-ton four-wheel drive military light utility vehicle made by Willys between 1949 and 1952. It replaced the venerable MB and Ford GPW models and had a total production of more than 60,000 units. The M38 was a military version of the then-current civilian Jeep CJ-3A. The M38 differed from the CJ-3A in numerous ways, including a reinforced frame and suspension, waterproof 24-volt electrical system, sealed vent system for the engine, transmission, transfer case, fuel system, and brake system. Approximately 2,300 M38 Jeeps were manufactured by Ford of Canada for Canadian Armed Forces in 1952, designated as the M38-CDN jeep. Its successor was Willys M38A1. The M38A1 is as similar to the CJ5 as the M38 is similar to the CJ3A.
Since the military wanted the upgraded waterproof motor, Carter stepped up with a waterproof carburetor, the YS 637S. When the M38 was discontinued, Carter stepped up with the YS 950S to feed the 24 volt, waterproof F-Head 134.
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Last Edit: Dec 28, 2018 7:49:12 GMT -5 by Scoutpilot
The M38s came from the factory with the underwater ventilating system installed. During the three model years production of the M38, a few changes were made to the underwater ventilating system.
Up to Engine serial number 74419, the bell housing was not sealed. The transmission and transfer cases were vented to the air filter. I will refer to this as the Early system.
M38s after Engine serial number 74419 had a sealed bell housing. The bell housing, transmission, and transfer case were pressurized while fording. I will refer to this as the Late system. TM 9-8012 (Jan 1956) indicates that at vehicle serial number 53262 the change to the late venting systems was made. This serial number would have a Date Of Delivery of about February 1952.
The combination of the underwater ventilating system and the installation of 801080 Deep Water Fording Kit enabled the M38 to drive through water up to 74" deep. The Deep Water Fording kit contained an extended intake hose, extended exhaust pipe, and the necessary brackets to install them.
Due to repairs and modifications made by owners, it is difficult to find intact examples of the original underwater ventilating system. The M38 service and parts manuals seem to have a few errors and omissions. I attempted to locate each part and part number using service manuals, parts manuals and an actual vehicle, MC61956. Since the M38 and M38A1 are very similar, the M38A1 manuals are helpful. This information was obtained from ORD 9 SNL-G740, ORD 9 SNL-G758, and TM9-1804A. Thanks also to members of the Yahoo M38-M38A1-M606 group for all their help.
This page contains a description of the operation of the underwater ventilating system. Page 2 contains parts information for the underwater ventilating system with photos.
Late style Underwater Ventilation System
The underwater ventilating system can be broken down into seven separate systems. I have numbered the systems to help identify them. System 1 and 2 are normally independent. On the late style only, Systems 1 and 2 are connected during fording operations. Systems 4 and 5 share the same vacuum supply (the wiper Tee).
1. Engine crankcase venting
2. Transmission and transfer case (also the bell housing on late style systems)
3. Carburetor venting
4. Distributor venting
5. Windshield wiper venting
6. Fuel tank venting
7. Master cylinder venting
1. Engine crankcase venting
Ventilation of internal combustion engines is necessary to prevent harmful condensation, to relieve internal pressures set up by the action of rapidly moving hot parts, and to rid the crankcase section of volatile vapors. When the M38 was built, engines were usually vented directly to the atmosphere through suitable openings or vents. The M38 engine is of waterproof construction. Because it is waterproof, or watertight, it is also airtight. Therefore, the method used to ventilate the engine is different than that of most engines of the time period. It uses the system that is on most modern automobiles, the PCV (positive crankcase ventilation) system. A PCV system is a closed system within the normal engine intake air and exhaust systems. During normal operation with the engine running, the vacuum created in the engine intake manifold draws fresh air into the ventilating system through the upper crankcase vent control valve on the air intake pipe assembly. The flow of air enters the oil filler pipe. The air then passes down into the crankcase.
The contaminated crankcase air leaves the cylinder block at the side valve cover through the series of parts that include the lower crankcase vent control valve and the metering valve (PCV valve). The air is then sucked into the engine intake manifold. From the intake manifold, the air is drawn into the cylinders, burned, and then exhausted into the engine exhaust system.
During normal operation, the two vent control valves are open and play no part in the ventilating system. The metering valve (PCV valve) however, operates to automatically control the amount of vacuum developed within the engine regardless of the engine speed. Prior to entering deep water, the vehicle operator installs the 1/4 inch pipe plug in the drain opening in the bell housing (late system) and closes the two vent control valves by pulling the control cable on the dash. Closing the vent valves renders the entire engine ventilating system inoperative. This does not include the vent system of the carburetor, wipers, master cylinder, fuel tank and the distributor, which are vented independently of the engine. When the vent control valves are closed with the engine running, the unrelieved pressure within the engine builds up to approximately 2-psi. Internal pressure rarely goes higher than 2-psi because, at higher pressure, leakage occurs through the crankshaft front and rear oil seals. This internal pressure offsets the external pressure of the water surrounding the engine and effectively prevents the entry of water into the engine past imperfectly sealed joints or through the front or rear oil seals.
2. Bellhousing, transmission, and transfer case venting, Early and Late style systems
These three components normally need to be vented to the atmosphere to eliminate internal pressure or vacuum from forming as they heat and cool with use.
Late system. On the late M38, the bell housing, transmission, and transfer case are all connected. The transmission is connected to the transfer case by internal passageways. The transfer case has a tube from the normal vent location to a Tee fitting on the driver's side of the bell housing. This Tee also has a line that continues to a check valve on the center section of the fuel pump. During normal operation, the bell housing is connected to the atmosphere through the threaded drain hole in the bottom. This allows the bell housing, transmission, and transfer case to vent to the atmosphere. For fording operations, the operator installs a plug in the bell housing drain hole to seal it. During fording the engine crankcase is slightly pressurized. This pressure passes through the center of the fuel pump, unseats the special fitting check ball, and pressurizes the bell housing, transmission, and transfer case. The purpose of raising the internal pressure of these units is to give them the same protection against the entry of water that is given the engine.
Early system. Early M38s did not have a sealed bell housing. There was no bell housing Tee and there were no fuel pump center fittings. The transfer case vent line was connected to the air filter via the dash tee fitting. The bell housing, transmission, and transfer cases were not pressurized during fording operations on the early vehicles.
Early style Underwater Ventilation System
3. Carburetor venting
The upper section of the carburetor must be open to atmospheric pressure to maintain a balanced condition in the carburetor. Therefore, the carburetor is vented by means of the vent line that connects the top of the carburetor to the air intake pipe.
The distributor needs to have a supply of fresh air to avoid the build-up of water vapors inside the cap. The rear inside of the distributor is connected to the air crossover pipe by a metal line. This line supplies clean air to the distributor.
The outside front of the distributor is connected by a metal line to a special fitting in the vacuum wiper supply Tee. The special fitting has a .040" restriction to limit the amount of vacuum in the distributor to a predetermined value regardless of the engine speed. It is also interesting to note that the two distributor vent lines are copper, while most of the venting system utilizes copper-plated steel lines.
5. Windshield wiper venting
The vacuum supply to operate the windshield wipers comes from the intake manifold. To ensure a constant vacuum regardless of engine speed the vacuum booster section of the fuel pump is connected in series between the intake manifold and the wiper supply Tee fitting.
Since the vehicle can be submerged, the wipers need to have a fresh air source to avoid the ingestion of water. This fresh air comes from the Tee fitting on the rear of the air filter housing.
6. Fuel tank vent
The fuel tank is vented by a copper line that runs from the top of the fuel tank to the tee fitting on the rear of the air filter housing. The fuel tank is equipped with a pressure relief valve that will permit pressure to build up in the tank to a maximum of 4 psi. The cap is a solid-type pressure cap designed for use only with this vehicle and should not be interchanged with the vented-type pressure cap, used with 3/4-ton trucks, which open and release excess pressure. The solid-type cap used with truck M38 has a cup about 3-1/2 inches in diameter, inside of the shell, with a rivet in the center of the cup and a safety chain riveted about 1-inch off-center. The cap used on the truck M38 is marked with embossed letters or decalcomania with the word pressurized and instructions to open slowly.
7. Master cylinder vent
The brake master cylinder is vented through a line that extends up between the foot pedals to the left dash elbow, mounted on the firewall. Another line crosses the firewall to the right side dash elbow. From there, a line continues to the air cleaner. On the early style venting system, the "Dash Tee" was used in place of the right side elbow. The additional connection point is where the transfer case vent line was connected.